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Below is a partial list of over 110 relevant citations showing how adjustments have a positive influence on the immune system. It’s our immune system that fights infection, sickness, and disease. Today researchers know there is a critical link between the nervous system and the immune system.

One of the most important studies showing the positive effect chiropractic care can have on the immune system and general health was performed by Ronald Pero, Ph.D., chief of cancer prevention research at New York’s Preventive Medicine Institute and professor of medicine at New York University. Dr. Pero measured the immune systems of people under chiropractic care as compared to those in the general population and those with cancer and other serious diseases. In his initial three-year study of 107 individuals who had been under chiropractic care for five years or more, the chiropractic patients were found to have a 200% greater immune competence than people who had not received chiropractic care, and 400% greater immune competence than people with cancer and other serious diseases. The immune system superiority of those under chiropractic care did not diminish with age. Dr. Pero stated:

“When applied in a clinical framework, I have never seen a group other than this chiropractic group to experience a 200% increase over the normal patients. This is why it is so dramatically important. We have never seen such a positive improvement in a group…”

Pero R. “Medical Researcher Excited By CBSRF Project Results.” The Chiropractic Journal, August 1989; 32.

In 1974, physiologist Dr. Korr proposed that “spinal lesions” (similar to the vertebral subluxation complex) are associated with exaggerated sympathetic (a division of the nerve system) activity.


The chiropractic immunology connection was strengthened in 1991 when Patricia Brennan, Ph.D., and other researchers conducted a study that found improved immune response following chiropractic treatment. Specifically, the study demonstrated the “phagocytic respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes were enhanced in adults that had been adjusted by chiropractors.” In other words, the cells that act like “Pac-Man” eating and destroying bad cells are enhanced through chiropractic care.

Brennan P, Graham M, Triano J, Hondras M. “Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory bursts induced by spinal manipulation: Potential Role of Substance P.” J Manip Physiolog Ther 1991; (14)7:399-400.


A paper published in 1987 found a connection between the nervous system and the immune system through endocrine channels. Dr. Felton and his team of researchers reported that “the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is present in sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate lymphoid organs and act on the spleen.” The authors proposed that norepinephrine in lymphoid organs plays a significant role in the regulation of the immune system. They stated:

“Stressful conditions lead to altered measures of immune function, and altered susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Many stimuli, which primarily act on the central nervous system, can profoundly alter immune responses. The two routes available to the central nervous system are neuroendocrine channels and autonomic nerve channels.”

Thus the immune system can be affected by the nerve system through the connections with the endocrine and the autonomic nervous system.

Felton DL, Felton SY, Belonged DL, et al. “Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function.” Immunol Rev. 1987 Dec;100:225-60.


Another important study was performed at the Sid E. Williams Research Center of Life Chiropractic University. The researchers took a group of HIV positive patients and adjusted them over a six-month period. What they found was that the “patients that were adjusted had an increase of forty-eight percent (48%) in the CD4 cells (an important immune system component).” These measurements were taken at the patients’ independent medical center, where they were under medical supervision for the condition. The control group (the patients that were not adjusted) did not demonstrate this dramatic increase in immune function, but actually experienced a 7.96% decrease in CD4 cell counts over the same period.

When we read the results of that study we were shocked that we hadn’t heard about it earlier, that it didn’t make the headline news or was on the front page of every newspaper. Those are very impressive results with important implications!

Selano JL, Hightower BC, Pfleger B, Feeley-Collins K, Grostic JD. “The Effects of Specific Upper Cervical Adjustments on the CD4 Counts of HIV Positive Patients.” The Chiro Research Journal; 3(1); 1994.


Sympathetic activity has been shown to release immune regulatory cells into the blood circulation, which alters immune function. This was reported by Drs. Murray, Irwin, and Reardon The authors stated:

“Growing evidence suggests that immune function is regulated in part by the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic nerve endings densely innervate lymphoid tissue such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and the thymus, and lymphoid cells have beta 2 adrenergic receptors.”

Basically what they were saying is that the nervous system has a direct effect on the immune system due to the nerve supply to the important immune system organs.

Murray DR, Irwin M, Reardon CA, et al. “Sympathetic and immune interactions during dynamic exercise. Mediation via a beta 2 – adrenergic-dependent mechanism.” Circulation 1992 86(1): 203


1. Riley, G.W. Osteopathic Success in the Treatment of Influenza and Pneumonia. American Osteopathic Association – Chicago Session. July 1919. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, August 1919.

2. Riley, G.W. Osteopathic Success in the Treatment of Influenza and Pneumonia. American Osteopathic Association – Chicago Session. July 1919. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, August 1919. Special Reprint Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Vol. 100. No. 5, May 2000.

3. Noll, DR., Shores, JH., Gamber, RG. Benefits of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Hospitalized Elderly Patients with Pneumonia. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Vol. 100. No. 12. December 2000.

4. Breithaupt, T., Harris, K., Ellis, J. Thoracic lymphatic pumping and the efficacy of influenza vaccination in healthy young and elderly populations. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Vol. 101. No. 1. January 2001.

5. Noll DR, Degenhardt BF, Stuart MK, Werden S, McGovern RJ, Johnson JC. The effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on immune response to the influenza vaccine in nursing homes residents: a pilot study. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;10(4):74-6.

6. Degenhardt BF, Kuchera ML. Update on osteopathic medical concepts and the lymphatic system. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1996 Feb;96(2):97-100.

7. Allen TW. Coming full circle: osteopathic manipulative treatment and immunity. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1998 Apr;98(4):204.

8. Schmidt IC. Osteopathic manipulative therapy as a primary factor in the management of upper, middle, and para respiratory infections. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1982 Feb;81(6):382-8.

9. Ward, EA. Influenza and Its Osteopathic Management. Eastern Osteopathic Association’s Seventeenth Annual Convention. New York, April 3, 1937. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Sept. 1937.

10. Ward, EA. Influenza and Its Osteopathic Management. Eastern Osteopathic Association’s Seventeenth Annual Convention. New York, April 3, 1937. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Sept. 1937. Special Reprint. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Vol. 100. No. 5. May 2000.

11. Smith, KR. One hundred thousand cases of influenza with a death rate of one-fortieth of that officially reported under conventional medical treatment. Annual Convention of the American Association for Clinical Research, New York. Oct. 18, 1919. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. January, 1920.

12. Smith, KR. One hundred thousand cases of influenza with a death rate of one-fortieth of that officially reported under conventional medical treatment. Annual Convention of the American Association for Clinical Research, New York. Oct. 18, 1919. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. January, 1920. Special Reprints. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Vol. 100. No. 5. May 2000.

13. Patterson, M. Osteopathic methods and the great flu pandemic of 1917-1918. JAOA (The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association) May 2000; 100(5):309-10

14. Masarsky, C. 1918. Dynamic Chiropractic. November 17, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 24 http://www.chiroweb.com/archives/21/24/01.html

15. Kent, C. Chiropractic and infectious disease — an historical perspective. The Chiropractic Journal April 2003. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/2003/apr/apr2003kent.htm

16. Harte, D. Alternative to the sting of a failed flu vaccine. The Chiropractic Journal. March 2004. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/2004/mar/harte.htm

17. Kent, C. Neuroimmunology and chiropractic. The Chiropractic Journal. October 1995. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/1995/oct/oct1995kent.htm

18. Lerche Davis, J. Flu Shot Scare Fuels Scams. WebMD 11/2/2004 http://dailynews.att.net/cgi-bin/health?e=pub&dt=041102&cat=women&st=women103746&src=webmd#

19. Lawrence, S. How to Dodge the Flu Without a Shot. Even without a flu shot, you can still do something to protect yourself. WebMD. October 22, 2004. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/95/103481.htm

20. Whelan et al: The effects of chiropractic manipulation on salivary cortisol levels. JMPT. 2002 (25)3

21. Takeda et al:

22. Long-term remission and alleviation of symptoms in allergy and Crohn’s disease patients following spinal adjustment for reduction of vertebral subluxations. JVSR Vol. 4. # 4. 2002

23. Selano, Grostic et al: The effects of specific upper cervical adjustments on the CD4 counts of HIV positive patients. CRJ. Vol. 3. # 1. 1994.

24. Brennan et al: Enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst as a biological marker for manipulation forces.

25. JMPT Vol. 15 # 2 Feb. 1992.

26. Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Kaltinger CJ, Lohr GE, Glendening C, Hondras MA, McGregor M, Triano JJ “Enhanced Phagocytic Cell Respiratory Burst Induced by Spinal Manipulation: Potential Role of Substance P” J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1991; 14(7): 399-407.

27. Tuchin PJ “The Effect of Chiropractic Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Salivary Cortisol Levels.” Australian Journal of Chiropractic and Osteopathy 2: 1998; pp. 86-92.

28. Vora GS, Bates HA “The Effects of Spinal Manipulation on the Immune System (A Preliminary Report)” The ACA Journal of Chiropractic 1980; 14: S103-105.

29. Masarsky CS, Weber M “Chiropractic and Lung Volumes – A Retrospective Study” ACA Journal of Chiropractic 1986; 20(9): 65-67.

30. Kessinger R “Changes in Pulmonary Function Associated with Upper Cervical Specific Chiropractic Care” J Vertebral Subluxation Res. 1997;1(3): 43-49.

31. Menon M, Plaugher G, Jansen R, Dhami MSI, Sutowski J “Effect of Thoracic Spinal Adjustment on Peripheral Airway Function in Normal Subjects – A Pilot Study” Conference Proceedings of the Chiropractic Centennial Foundation 1995; July 6-8: 244-245.

32. Masarsky CS, Weber M “Chiropractic and Lung Volumes – A Retrospective Study” ACA Journal of Chiropractic 1986; 20(9): 65-67.

33. Allen JM “The Effects of Chiropractic on the Immune System: A Review of Literature” Chiropractic Journal of Australia 1993; 23: 132-135.

34. Rhodes WR: “The Official History of Chiropractic in Texas.” Texas Chiropractic Association. Austin, TX. 1978.

35. “Chiropractic Statistics.” The Chiropractic Research and Review Service. Burton Shields Press. Indianapolis, IN. 1925.

36. Wells BF, Janse J: “Chiropractic Practice. Volume 1. Infectious Diseases.” National College of Chiropractic. Chicago, IL. 1942.

37. Kent C: “Neuroimmunology — an update.” The Chiropractic Journal. August, 2001. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/2001/aug/aug2001kent.htm

38. Kent C: “The mental impulse-biochemical and immunologic aspects.” The Chiropractic Journal. February, 1999. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/1999/feb/feb1999kent.htm

39. Elenkov IJ, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, Vizi ES: “The sympathetic nerve-an integrative interface between the two supersystems: the brain and the immune system.” Pharmacol Rev 2000;52:295-638. http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/cgi/reprint/52/4/595.pdf

40. Brennan PC, et al. Immunologic correlates of reduced spinal mobility. Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation (FCER):118.

41. Todres-Masarsky M, Masarsky CS. The Somatovisceral Interface: Further Evidence. In Masarsky CS, Todres-Masarsky M (editors). Somatovisceral Aspects of Chiropractic: An Evidence-Based Approach, 2001, Churchill Livingstone, New York.

42. Korr IM: “Andrew Taylor Still memorial lecture: research and practice — a century later.” J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1974 73:362.Murray DR, Irwin M, Reardon CA, et al: “Sympathetic and immune interactions during dynamic exercise. Mediation via a beta 2 – adrenergic-dependent mechanism.” Circulation 1992 86(1):203.

43. Felten DL, Felten SY, Bellinger DL, et al: “Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function.” Immunol Rev. 1987 100:225.

44. Felten DL, Felten SY, Bellinger DL, Madden KS: “Fundamental aspects of neural-immune signaling.” Psychother. Psychosom. 1993 60(1):46.

45. Kolata G: “Nerve cells tied to immune system.” The New York Times May 13, 1993.

46. Hosoi J, Murphy GF, Egan CL et al: “Regulation of Langerhans cell function by nerves containing calcination gene-related peptide.” Nature 1993 363(6425):159.

47. Undem BJ: “Neural-immunologic interactions in asthma.” Hosp. Pract. (Off Ed) 1994 29(2):59.

48. Sternberg EM, Chrousos GP, Wilder RL, Gold PW: “The stress response and the regulation of inflammatory disease.” Ann Intern Med 1992 117(10):854.

49. Fricchoine GL, Stefano GB: “The stress response and auto immunoregulation.” Adv. Neuroimmunol. 1994 4(1):13.

50. Ottaway CA, Husband AJ: “Central nervous system influences on lymphocyte migration.” Brain Behav Immun. 1992 6(2):97.

51. Weihe E, Krekel J: “The neuroimmune connection in human tonsils.” Brain Behav. Immun. 1991 5(1):41.

52. Grossman Z, Heberman RB, Livnat S: “Neural modulation of immunity: conditioning phenomena and the adaptability of lymphoid cells.” Int. J Neurosci. 1992 64(1-4):275.

53. Fidelibus, J.; An overview of neuroimmunomodulation and a possible correlation with musculoskeletal system function JOURNAL OF MANIPULATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS. 1989 Vol. 12 Pgs. 289-292

54. Davison, S.; Parkin-Smith, G.F.; The possible effect of cervical chiropractic manipulation on short-term lymphocytic response – a pilot study WFC’S 7TH BIENNIAL CONGRESS CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, MAY 1-3, 2003. 2003 Vol. 7th Edt. Pgs. 278-80

55. Ali, S.; Hayek, R.; Holland, R.; Mckelvey, S.E.; Boyce, K.; EFFECT OF CHIROPRACTIC TREATMENT ON THE ENDOCRINE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2002 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SPINAL MANIPULATION. 2002 OCT Vol. Pgs.

56. Pickar, J.G.; Kang, Y-M.; Kenney, M.J.; Inflammation of Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Reflexively Increases Sympathetic Nerve Activity to Spleen and Kidney THE JOURNAL OF CHIROPRACTIC EDUCATION. 2002 SPR Vol. 16(1) Pgs. 44-5

57. Davison, S.M.; Parkin-Smith, G.F.; Immunological profiles in asymptomatic subjects after chiropractic cervical spine manipulation PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORLD FEDERATION OF CHIROPRACTIC CONGRESS. 2001 MAY Vol. 6 Pgs. 264-5

58. Hoiriis, K.T.; Edenfield, D.; Chiropractic and The Immune Response: A Literature Review JOURNAL OF VERTEBRAL SUBLUXATION RESEARCH. 2000 OCT Vol. 4(1) Pgs.

59. Martin, C.; Chiropractic and HIV Infection JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHIROPRACTIC ASSOCIATION. 1995 DEC Vol. 32(12) Pgs. 41-4

60. Spector NH. Anatomic and Physiologic connections between the central nervous system and the immune systems. Reprinted. In: Research Forum 1987;103-17.

61. Besedovsky HO, Del Rey A. Physiological Implications of the Immune-Neuro-endocrine Network. Psychoneuroimmunology, Academic Press, Inc. Second Edition. 1991;589-603.

62. van Breda WM, van Breda JM. A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. J Chirop. Res. 1989;5(4):101-103.

63. Rose-Aymon S, Aymon M, Prochaska-Moss G, Moss R, Rebne R, Nielsen K. The relationship between intensity of chiropractic care and the incidence of childhood diseases. J Chirop. Res 1989;5(3):70-7.

64. Reubi JC, Horisberger U, Kappeler A, Laissue JA. Localization of Receptors for Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Somatostatin, and Substance P in distinct compartments of human lymphoid organs. Blood 1998;92(1):191-197.

65. Giron LT, Crutcher KA, Davis JN. Lymph nodes-A possible site for sympathetic neuronal regulation of immune response. Annals of Neurology 1980;8(5):520-525.

66. Murray DR., Irwin M, Rearden CA, Ziegler M, Motulsky H, Maisel AS. Sympathetic and Immune Interactions During Dynamic Exercise Mediation Via a Beta2-Adrenergic-Dependent Mechanism. Circulation 1992; 86:203-213.

67. Brennan PC, Graham MA, Triano JJ, Hondras MA, Anderson RJ,. Lymphocyte profiles in patients with chronic low back pain enrolled in a clinical trial. J Manip Physiol Ther. 1994 17(4): 219-227.

68. Lohr GE, O’Brien JC, Nodine DL, Brennan PC. Natural killer cells as an outcome of chiropractic treatment efficacy. In: Proceedings of the Internationa1 Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington, Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 1990:109-12.

69. Injeyan, S. Studies on the effects of spinal manipulation on the immune response. Internet WWW 1999; http//www.c3r.org/research/injeyan-R/injeyan-r.html

70. Ottaway CA, Husband AJ. Central nervous system influences on Lymphocyte Migration. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 1992;6(2):97-116.

71. Neveu PJ, Le Moal M. Physiological basis for neuroimmunomodulation. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 1990;4:281-305.

72. Giron LT, Crutcher KA, Davis JN. Lymph nodes-A possible site for sympathetic neuronal regulation of immune response. Annals of Neurology 1980;8(5):520-525.

73. McCain HW, Lamster IB, Bozzone JM, Gribic JT. Beta-Endorphin modulates human immune activity via no opiate receptor mechanisms. Life Science 1982;31:1619-24.

74. Payan DG, Brewster DR., Goetzl EJ. Specific Stimulation of Human Lymphocytes by Substance P. J. Immunol. 1983;131(4):1613-15.

75. Payan DG, Brewster DR, Missirian-Bastia A,Goetzl EJ. Substance P Recognition by a Subset of Human T Lymphocytes. J Clin Invest. 1984;74:1532-39.

76. Mertelsman R,Welte K. Human Interleukin 2: molecular biology, physiology and clinical possibilities. Immunobiol.1986;172:400-19.

77. Badalamente MA, Dee R, Ghillani R, Chien P, Daniels K. Mechanical Stimulation of Dorsal Root Ganglia Induces Increased Production of Substance P:A Mechanism for Pain Following Nerve Root Compromise. Spine. 1987;12(6):552-5.

78. Lindholm D, Neumann R, Meyer M, Thoenen H. Interleukin-1 regulates synthesis of nerve growth factor in non-neuronal cells of rat sciatic nerve. Nature 1987;330:658-659.

79. Lindholm D, Neumann R, Hengerer B, Thoenen H. Interleukin-1 increases stability and transcription of mRNA encoding nerve growth factor in cultured rat fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 1988;263:16348-16351.

80. Neveu PJ, Le Moal M. Physiological basis for neuroimmunomodulation. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 1990;4:281-305.

81. Besedovsky HO, Del Rey A. Physiological Implications of the Immune-Neuro-endocrine Network. Psychoneuroimmunology, Academic Press, Inc. Second Edition. 1991;589-603.

82. Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Triano JJ, Fritz TE, Wardip CL, Hondras MA. Immunologic correlates of reduced spinal mobility: preliminary observations in a dog model. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington, Virginia. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. 1991:118-21.

83. Roszman TL, Carlson SL. Neurotransmitters and Molecular signaling in the Immune Response. Psychoneuroimmunology, Second Edition. Academic Press, Inc. 1991:311-33.

84. Murray DR., Irwin M, Rearden CA, Ziegler M, Motulsky H, Maisel AS. Sympathetic and Immune Interactions During Dynamic Exercise Mediation Via a Beta2-Adrenergic-Dependent Mechanism. Circulation 1992; 86:203-213.

85. Ottaway CA, Husband AJ. Central nervous system influences on Lymphocyte Migration. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 1992;6(2):97-116.

86. Wells MR, Racis SP, Vaidya U. Changes in Plasma Cytokines Associated with Peripheral Nerve Injury. J Neuroimmunol. 1992;39:261-8.

87. Felten DL, Felten SY, Bellinger DL, Madden KS. Fundamental Aspects of Neural-Immune Signaling. Psychother. Psychosom. 1993;60:46-56.

88. Bellinger DL, Lorton D, Brouxhon S, Felten S, Felten DL. The significance of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in immunomodulation. Adv. Neuroimmunol. 1996;6(1):5-27.

89. Herzberg U, Murtaugh MP, Carroll D, Beitz AJ. Spinal Cord NMDA Receptors Modulate Peripheral Immune Responses and Spinal Cord c-fos Expression after Immune Challenge in Rats Subjected to Unilateral Mononeuropathy. J Neurosci. 1996;16(2):730-43.

90. Reubi JC, Horisberger U, Kappeler A, Laissue JA. Localization of Receptors for Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Somatostatin, and Substance P in distinct compartments of human lymphoid organs. Blood 1998;92(1):191-197.

91. Alcorn SM. Chiropractic treatment and antibody levels. J Aust. Chiropractors Assoc. 1977. 11(3):18-37.

92. Vora G, Bates H. The effects of spinal manipulation on the immune system. Am Chiropr. Assoc. J Chiropr. 1980; 4:S103-5

93. Luisetto G, Spano D, Steiner W. et al. Immunoreactive ACTH, beta-endorphin and calcitonin before and after manipulative treatment of patients with cervical arthrosis and Barre’s syndrome. In: Napolitano E., editor. Research in chiropractic: Proceedings of ICA International Congress. Washington, DC: International Chiropractor’s Association. 1983;47-52.

94. Richardson DL, Kappler R, Klatz R. et al. The effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on endogenous opiate concentration (abstract) J AM Osteopath Assoc. 1984;84:127.

95. Vernon HT, Dhami MSI, Howley TP, Annett R, Spinal Manipulation and Beta-Endorphin: A Controlled Study of the Effect of a Spinal Manipulation on Plasma Beta-Endorphin Levels in Normal Males. J Manip. Physiol. Ther. 1986;9(2):115-23

96. Christian GF, Stanton GJ, Sissons D, How HY, Jamison J, Alder B, Fullerton M, Funder JW. Immunoreactive ACTH, Beta-endorphin and cortisol levels in plasma following spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 1988;13(12):1411-1417.

97. van Breda WM, van Breda JM. A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. J Chirop. Res. 1989;5(4):101-103.

98. Rose-Aymon S, Aymon M, Prochaska-Moss G, Moss R, Rebne R, Nielsen K. The relationship between intensity of chiropractic care and the incidence of childhood diseases. J Chirop. Res 1989;5(3):70-7 .

99. Kokjohn K, Kaltinger C, Lohr GE, et al. Plasma substance P following spinal manipulation. . In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington, Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. 1990:105-8.

100. Lohr GE, O’Brien JC, Nodine DL, Brennan PC. Natural killer cells as an outcome of chiropractic treatment efficacy. In: Proceedings of the Internationa1 Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington, Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 1990:109-12.

101. Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Kaltinger CJ, Lohr GE, Glendening C, Hondras MA, McGregor M, Triano JJ. Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory burst induced by spinal manipulation: Potential role of substance P. J Manip. Physio. Ther.1991;14(7):399-408.

102. McGregor M, Brennan P, Triano JJ. Immunologic response to manipulation of the lumbar spine. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington, Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 1991:153-5.

103. Brennan PC, Triano JJ, McGregor M, Kokjohn K, Hondras MA, Brennan PC. Enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst as a biological marker for manipulation forces: Duration of the effect and association with substance P and Tumor Necrosis Factor. J Manip. Physiol. Ther. 1992;15(2):83-9.

104. Brennan PC, Graham MA, Triano JJ, Hondras MA, Anderson RJ,. Lymphocyte profiles in patients with chronic low back pain enrolled in a clinical trial. J Manip. Physiol. Ther. 1994 17(4): 219-227.

105. Injeyan, S. Studies on the effects of spinal manipulation on the immune response. Internet WWW 1999; http//c3r.org/research/injeyan-R/injeyan-r.html

106. Spector NH. Anatomic and Physiologic connections between the central nervous system and the immune systems. Reprinted in: Research Forum 1987;103-17.

107. Fidelibus JC.An overview of neuroimmunomodulation and a possible correlation with musculoskeletal system function. J Manip. Physiol. Ther. 1989;12(4):289-292.

108. Allen, JM. The effects of chiropractic on the immune system: A review of the literature. Chiropractic Journal Aust. 1993;23:132-5.

109. Kent, C. Neuroimmunology. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association. 1996. Internet.